At the onset of milk production after calving, calcium excretion increases substantially. This requires a swift adaptation of the calcium metabolism to maintain calcium homeostasis. If the cow cannot maintain calcium homeostasis via increased calcium absorption, or calcium mobilization from bone, blood calcium content drops, which might result in hypocalcaemia and (sub-)clinical milk fever. The incidence of (sub-)clinical milk fever is generally higher in multiparous dairy cows, as the drop in the blood calcium content after calving is generally much bigger in multiparous than in primiparous cows. Subclinical milk fever, which often remains undetected, increases the risk of retained placenta, abomasal displacement, and ketosis, whereas clinical milk fever is life-threatening and needs immediate veterinarian treatment.
A breeder farm produces fertile eggs, which enables good embryo development. The shell is the primary source of calcium (98,2%) for the developing chick embryo.
In the case of poor eggshell strength, there is a high risk of bacteria entering the egg, which contributes to an increased risk of embryo mortality. In older breeders, this risk is more pronounced. With age, there is an increasing lack of the enzyme that converts the vitamin D3 into its active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3, which supports calcium mobilization and causes eggshell quality to diminish. 1,25(OH)2D3 might also play a role on non-classical effects, such as immunity and fertility, by helping the transfer and deposition of antibodies into the yolk, and by increasing the ovulation rate, which causes an increase in the laying persistency of the hens.
The implication for the industry
An increase of 1% unit in the hatchability is of great financial value. Giving the embryo the best conditions to develop will not only increase the hatchability, but it will also increase chick quality, chick survival, broiler/layer growth, feed conversion/egg production, and slaughter yield later in life.
Supports the crucial role of vitamin D3
100% Natural & GMO-free
Standardized content of the active ingredient
Gradually absorbed from the intestine
High processing and storage stability
Panbonis® is a complementary feed that contains a standardized level of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol-glycosides (1,25(OH)2D3-gly) from dried and ground Solanum glaucophyllum leaves. 1,25(OH)2D3-gly can only be absorbed after the sugar molecule is released from 1,25(OH)2D3 by specific enzymes that are present in the intestine. This is a gradual process, ensuring a slow release of the bioactive component. Once it is absorbed, it does not need additional activation steps, like vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) do, which means that Panbonis® can directly support the animal even in periods when specific activation enzymes in liver and kidney are limited.
Supplementing a commercial breeder diet with 100g/t of Panbonis® 10 supports the Ca-metabolism and deposition in the eggshell, which will positively affect hatchability and embryo development.
Mode of action
Vitamin D3 needs two conversion steps to become metabolically active. The first step happens in the liver, where vitamin D3 is converted to 25(OH)D3. 25(OH)D3 is the storage form of vitamin D3 and gives a good indication of the vitamin D3 status of the animal.
The second activation step happens in the kidney, where the 25(OH)D3 is converted into 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 then interacts with the vitamin D3 receptor (VDR), which is – among others – located in the gut cells. There 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the expression of Calbindin, a Ca-binding protein in the cell that transports the Ca from the gut to the blood. When providing Panbonis®, which naturally contains 1,25(OH)2D3 -gly, only the glycosides need to be cleaved by endogenous enzymes, and the free 1,25(OH)2D3 can be absorbed and is directly available at the site of Ca-absorption.
Panbonis® (inclusion of 50g/tn) group showed a higher performance during the second and third 3-wk period, indicating a better laying persistency compared to the Control treatment.
In the same trial, the embryo mortality was reduced.
Figure 1. Effect of Panbonis in the number of hatching eggs
Figure 2. Effect of Panbonis (inclusion 100g/tn) on the number of eggs and chicks
- fast time to action
- improves Ca-metabolism
- increases hatchability
- decreases embryo mortality